It just so happens that Dennis Hollinger has an article in the most recent issue of JETS on the issue of contraception: “The Ethics of Contraception: A Theological Assessment.” Hollinger’s article focuses on the differences between Roman Catholics and Evangelicals on the propriety of modern contraceptive technologies.
Evangelicals tend to allow for the use of birth control devices by married couples, so long as those methods are truly contraceptive and are not abortifacient. Roman Catholics, however, oppose all use of contraception—even those methods that are not abortifacient. Hollinger gives a brief but helpful history of why Evangelicals and Roman Catholics have differed on this issue.
Hollinger also sets forth a theological rationale for the licit use of non-abortifacient birth control devices. Is this the last word on the contraception debate? Certainly not. But if you want to understand the historic differences between Evangelicals and Roman Catholics on this issue, this is a good place to start. (For those who are interested, I also discuss this issue at some length in chapter 5 of my book, What Is the Meaning of Sex?.)